This article was submitted as part of a CIPR Professional PR Diploma assignment by Stuart Moffatt, who studied with PR Academy.
In the sports industry, individual athletes and organisations have an ethical predicament when faced with a crisis which is not yet known to the media or public: should they elect to self-disclose the relevant information before a third party exposes it or do they ‘keep a lid on it’ and conceal the information in the hope that it will not become public knowledge?
During a time when the that the public has increasingly lost trust and faith in institutions around the world, has indicated it is ethically the correct decision for individuals and organisations to fully self-disclose information about a crisis and communicate honestly and transparently with all stakeholders who are affected by it.
Indeed, both individuals and organisations seem hesitant to proactively and openly communicate with stakeholders so long as the possibility exists that the crisis can be dealt with internally without public knowledge and the crisis is considered limited in nature by senior management.
This approach is risky at best and individuals and organisations must realise that the truth will surface eventually, particularly when media and consumers have access to more information than ever before and social media enables rapid and widespread sharing of information worldwide.
In a sporting context, consider USA Gymnastics which was subject to a which exposed the governing body for its failure to disclose serious allegations of sexual misconduct and abuse perpetrated by coaches against child athletes to the relevant law enforcement authorities, its stakeholders and the public. The public revelations led to a against USA Gymnastics employee .
Or professional cyclist Lance Armstrong, who and allegations of systematic doping throughout a sustained period of sporting success which included seven Tour de France titles. He was eventually charged by the US Anti-Doping Agency who disclosed that Armstrong had operated a widespread doping regime for several years and was corroborated by the testimonies of former team-mates and individuals close to him.
And then there is the who were both found to be complicit in failing to openly disclose the full set of circumstances which led to the arrest and charge of superstar player Ray Rice for the serious assault of his fiancée, Jay Palmer. Instead, two security videos were leaked to and which showed Rice assaulting Palmer and dragging her unconsciously into an Atlantic City casino. The NFL was forced to .
As illustrated above, the consequences of failing to self-disclose a crisis which is subsequently revealed by third parties can be devastating. High levels of negative media coverage and widespread public indignation on social media will severely damage their reputation leading to , reduction in , lawsuits and , and the instigation of and .
The long-term implications for the reputation of individual athletes and sports organisations in crisis should therefore not be taken lightly and the increasing prevalence of crises and scandals in the sports industry led former Labour Party Director of Communications Alastair Campbell to conclude that “”.
Therefore, how can public relations practitioners operating on behalf of individual athletes and sports organisations manage crises more effectively to lessen their destructive impact on reputation?
Recent academic research offers evidence for the as an alternative crisis management strategy, which involves an individual or organisation proactively self-disclosing crisis information before other interested parties, such as the media, become aware of the incriminating information.
The usefulness of stealing thunder was first established within the contexts of and but has recently been advocated within the research field of crisis communications where the rationale and potential benefits for public relations practitioners have been documented.
, there are six reasons why practitioners should use stealing thunder to self-disclose information when individuals and organisations become aware of a crisis so that they can mitigate its effects on reputation.
Individual athletes and sports organisations who self-disclose incriminating information because people do not expect them to willingly divulge major problems and issues about themselves. Rather, they expect that information revealed by an individual or organisation in crisis will be one-sided and biased.
Stealing thunder, however, supplants these expectations, thereby increasing the credibility of an individual or organisation and which they may suffer. Importantly for practitioners, when they steal thunder on behalf of an individual or organisation.
The importance of maintaining credibility in a sporting context was underlined by the corruption crisis which continues to overshadow FIFA, the world football governing body. Following the , organisational spokespersons, including then president Sepp Blatter, continued to the worldwide media despite the charges levied on its senior executives by the FBI.
In the eyes of the public, and they may resolve that inconsistency by changing the meaning of that information. In the crisis context, people may consider the issue or problem as less severe because they expect that the individual or organisation would never voluntarily reveal damaging information about themselves.
Reducing the severity of a crisis within the sports industry is of particular interest to practitioners who wish to protect the reputation of athletes and organisations and minimise the impact of any negative outcomes resulting from a crisis.
Consider the severity of the doping crisis which blemished the reputation and integrity of world athletics following the and the subsequent investigation and recommendation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) that Russian athletes be banned from competition.
revealed that the reputation score for athletics among fans in the UK dropped from 30.9% in October 2015 to -1.2% in March 2016 as a result of the crisis, while long-term commercial partner adidas severed costing the organisation an estimated £20m in revenues.
There are fears among practitioners that self-disclosing a crisis will lead to significant levels of unwanted attention from the media and the public, but : individuals and organisations who reveal crisis information first have been found to receive less attention than those crises discovered by another party.
To illustrate, results of a study which demonstrated that individuals who steal thunder receive less media coverage and that stories and reports about the crisis are framed in a more positive manner. This is explained by which, in the context of a crisis, suggests that when information is made freely available and is less scarce, it is less interesting and less valuable to people, including reporters.
The comparable situations of American entertainment icon David Letterman and golf superstar Tiger Woods, who both faced a crisis due to the existence of their extra-marital affairs, help to illustrate this.
Encouraging outcomes for Letterman’s reputation included much less media coverage, more positive frames in news articles and fewer negative frames. Moreover, stealing thunder was effective in bringing closure to the story and helped the media move onto writing about what happens next for Letterman. Conversely, Woods’ reputation was tarnished by higher levels of intense media coverage which was found to be more negative in sentiment.
By stealing thunder, practitioners can seize the opportunity for individual athletes and sports organisations to set the tone and tell the story in their own way. A significant advantage gained from self-disclosure is the ability to frame the crisis according to their own terms and downplay its significance to the media and stakeholders.
Individuals and organisations who appear to be more remorseful than rational in their communication will also , thereby positively influencing post-crisis reputation, a significant outcome by which practitioners may be judged.
A concerns the tennis star Maria Sharapova who in 2016 called a press conference to reveal to the media and wider public that she had tested positive for a banned substance at the Australian Open before this information was released by the tennis authorities.
During the press conference, that led to her anti-doping violation and took full responsibility for her actions. This approach enabled her to own and control the narrative which was delivered in a remorseful manner to the media in attendance. There was little left for the media to reveal or investigate.
Thanks to her self-disclosure, Sharapova was able to tell the story on her own terms, generating positive comments in the media from fellow athletes and fans, who showed their support using social media hashtags #IStandWithMaria and #WholeWorldWithSharapova.
Practitioners can persuade individuals and colleagues to use stealing thunder in a crisis thanks to that consumers are more likely to buy from you again in the future if you self-disclose the crisis information first, rather than being revealed by an external third party.
Stealing thunder can therefore provide an important advantage for sports organisations who wish to remain profitable and continue to generate revenues from the sale of tickets for events and competitions and branded merchandise to fans.
When individual athletes and sports organisations experience a crisis, they have an ethical duty to take full responsibility and truthfully disclose crisis information in its entirety to all affected stakeholders.
Stakeholders are more likely to have a favourable response to this approach and consider the individual or organisation as more ethical than ones who choose to conceal information and appear defensive.
Throughout their careers, public relations practitioners operating in the sports industry are more than likely to be called upon to manage a crisis confronting an individual athlete or organisation.
Should the crisis become public knowledge thanks to the revelations of external parties, individuals and organisations risk huge damage to their reputations following the negative media coverage and widespread sharing of information on social media that inevitably follows.
This article has offered persuasive evidence to advocate the alternative use of stealing thunder in times of crisis over waiting for it to be discovered by external parties, including the media and affected stakeholders. Indeed, the use of stealing thunder to self-disclose incriminating information in times of crisis has been proven to mitigate its negative effects on the reputation of individuals and organisations.
Practitioners advising athletes and sporting bodies can legitimately claim that stealing thunder will make them appear more credible in the eyes of the media and stakeholders, while reducing the perceived severity of the crisis. Stealing thunder will also draw less attention from the media and stakeholders and provide an opportunity for individuals and organisations to more positively frame the crisis on their own terms. Consumers are also more inclined to buy products or services from organisations who steal thunder. Finally, individuals and organisations are considered more ethical by stakeholders when they steal thunder.
This article was submitted as part of an assignment for the CIPR Professional PR Diploma with PR Academy.
Arpan, L. & Pompper, D. (2003), Stormy weather: testing “stealing thunder” as a crisis communication strategy to improve communication flow between organizations and journalists, Public Relations Review, Volume 29, Issue 3, September 2003, Pages 291-308
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Richards JR, O., Wilson, C., Boyle, K., Mower, J. (2017), A knockout to the NFL’s reputation?: A case study of the NFL’s crisis communications strategies in response to the Ray Rice scandal, Public Relations Review, Volume 43, Issue 3, September 2017, Pages 615-623
Online Articles and Reports
Cronin, B. (2016), Survey | Are sports scandals driving fans away? SportsBusiness International,
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