E

Elaboration likelihood model: Petty and Cacioppo (1980) suggested there are two routes to persuasion: the central route (people are able to think deeply about the message) and the peripheral route.

Environment scanning: This takes place in the situation analysis of strategic public relations planning. It involves research to identify trends in public opinion and in the climate surrounding the organisation. Popular tools include PESTEL and SWOT analyses.

Ethics: Principles governing professional conduct. (Morality involves personal conduct).

Evaluation: Ongoing process to review and measure the effectiveness of public relations programmes. The discussion has shifted from output measures to outcome measures (ie from media coverage to behaviour change).

Excellence theory: Developed by James Grunig and others, this built on the principle of two-way symmetric communication to argue how public relations could contribute to excellent organisations.

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