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Reciprocal link: Two sites that link to each other. Search engines usually don’t see these as high value links.

Relationship management: Perspective on public relations championed by US scholars John Ledingham and Stephen Bruning.

Reputation management: The purpose of public relations, according to the CIPR definition. Yet there are few academic champions of this perspective beyond Charles Fombrun.

Resources: The resources needed for public relations campaigns are usually categorised in three ways: human resources, expenses, equipment.

Rhetoric: The study of the language used to persuade and influence. This usually begins with a study of Aristotle and has been developed into a paradigm by US scholars such as Robert Heath and Elizabeth Toth.

Risk: Usually linked to issues and crisis management. Just as doctors are enjoined to ‘first do no harm’, public relations practitioners must weigh up the risks of action and inaction in any given case.

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